Highlights in history on this date:
1324 - Death of Italian explorer Marco Polo.
1719 - France declares war on Spain.
1793 - French aeronaut Jean-Pierre Blanchard makes the first balloon flight over the North American continent.
1799 - British Prime Minister William Pitt (the Younger) introduces income tax at two shillings in the pound to raise funds for the Napoleonic Wars.
1806 - Lord Nelson, who was mortally wounded in the Battle of Trafalgar in October 1805, is buried at St Paul's Cathedral in London.
1868 - The Hougoumont, the last convict ship to come to Australia, arrives at Fremantle. On board are 279 convicts and 108 passengers.
1902 - Legislation is introduced in New York to outlaw flirting in public.
1916 - The evacuation of the last 17,000 British troops from Cape Helles brings the Gallipoli campaign to an end.
1945 - US forces invade Luzon in Philippines in World War II.
1951 - United Nations headquarters opens in New York.
1960 - Construction work starts on the Aswan High Dam in Egypt.
1962 - Soviet Union and Cuba sign trade pact.
1965 - An estimated 500 people suspected of being rebels are executed by Congo government forces in Stanleyville in six weeks since city was retaken.
1972 - Fire destroys the liner Queen Elizabeth in waters off Hong Kong.
1977 - Palestinian nationalist suspected of having planned attacks on Israeli athletes at 1972 Olympic games in Munich is arrested in Paris.
1978 - Islamic revolution erupts in Iran.
1984 - Death of US-born Australian quizmaster Bob Dyer.
1992 - Serbs in Bosnia-Herzegovina proclaim their own state.
1998 - Northern Ireland Secretary Mo Mowlam visits the Maze Prison to make a face-to-face appeal for peace to Protestant militants.
2003 - Weapons inspectors Hans Blix and Mohamed ElBaradei tell the UN Security Council they had not uncovered any "smoking gun" evidence proving that Iraq possessed or sought to develop chemical, biological or nuclear weapons.
2004 - National Security Adviser Condoleezza Rice admits that the US has no credible evidence that Iraq moved weapons of mass destruction into Syria early in 2003 before the US-led war that drove Saddam Hussein from power.
2006 - Australian motorcyclist Andy Caldecott, 41, becomes the 23rd competitor in 28 years to die in the Dakar rally in Africa.
2008 - Actor Toni Collette and her musician husband Dave Galafassi welcome their first child, Sage Florence.
2010 - An Indian man is attacked and set alight in Melbourne, a week after an Indian student there was killed.
2015 - Two days after the fatal attack on the Paris office of satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo, the two perpetrators are shot dead by police following an eight-hour siege at an industrial estate.
2017 - Death in NSW of Michael Chamberlain, NZ-born pastor who was falsely implicated with his then-wife Lindy in the disappearance and death of their baby daughter Azaria in 1980.
Pope Gregory XV (Allesandro Ludovisi) (1554-1623); Thomas Warton, English poet laureate (1728-1790); Simone de Beauvoir, French novelist and critic (1908-1986); Richard Nixon, US president (1913-1994); Joan Baez, US folk singer (1941-); Robert Drewe, Australian author (1943-); Jimmy Page, British rock musician (1944-); Morris Gleitzman, Australian children's author (1953-); Bill Leak, Australian cartoonist (1956-2017); Dave Matthews, US musician (1967-); Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge (1982-).
Thought for Today:
Those who give have all things. They who withhold have nothing. - Hindu proverb.