Highlights in history on this date:
1519 - Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I dies.
1799 - Matthew Flinders and George Bass return to Sydney in sloop Norfolk after circumnavigating Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania).
1872 - Tin discovered at Tenterfield, NSW.
1879 - British-Zulu War begins in Africa.
1896 - Start of 13-day heat wave in Bourke, NSW, with daily average temperature of 47C; a total of 47 people die.
1897 - Death of Sir Isaac Pitman, British educator and inventor of the shorthand system.
1915 - The US House of Representatives rejects a proposal to give women the vote.
1945 - German forces retreat in disorder in Battle of the Bulge in Belgium during World War II.
1950 - A Swedish tanker strikes the British submarine Truculent during its trials in the River Thames. Only 15 of 70 men on the submarine survive.
1958 - Soviet Union proposes zone free of nuclear weapons from Arctic Circle to Mediterranean.
1967 - China's Army pledges support to Mao Zedong during disorder triggered by Chinese Cultural Revolution.
1970 - A Boeing 747 arrives at London's Heathrow airport after its first proving flight from New York.
1974 - North African nations of Libya and Tunisia announce agreement to merge as a new republic. The union never goes into effect.
1976 - Death of British crime writer Dame Agatha Christie.
1986 - Brisbane's Gateway Bridge opens, with 5000 cars passing every hour.
1990 - Romania's interim president, Ion Iliescu, announces that the Communist Party is outlawed.
1991 - US Congress grants President George Bush authority to use force to drive Iraq from Kuwait.
1993 - A 7.8 magnitude earthquake strikes northern Japan, killing 196 people.
1998 - Nineteen European nations sign an agreement to prohibit cloning of humans beings.
1998 - Germany agrees to establish a fund of 200 million marks to compensate about 18,000 Jewish Nazi victims in eastern Europe.
2000 - Britain lifts its ban on homosexuals serving in the military, accepting a landmark European court ruling.
2003 - Death of General Leopoldo Galtieri, former Argentinian military dictator who led his country into the disastrous 1982 Falkland Islands war against Britain.
2007 - Former Liberal minister Sir James Killen dies, aged 81.
2009 - Building workers in northern Poland find a World War II-era mass grave containing what are believed to be the bodies of 1800 German men, women and children who disappeared during the Soviet Army's march to Berlin.
2010 - An earthquake devastates Haiti, killing 230,000 people, injuring 300,000 and leaving more than one million homeless.
2011 - Torrential summer rains in Rio de Janeiro state's mountains kill at least 140 people in 24 hours.
2014 - Pope Francis names his first batch of cardinals, choosing 19 men from Asia, Africa, Latin America and elsewhere.
2017 - Robert Xie is found guilty by a NSW jury of the murder of five of his wife's relatives, including two children.
Edmund Burke, Irish-born statesman (1729-1797); Hermann Goering, German Nazi leader (1893-1946); Joe Frazier, US boxer (1944-2011); Kirstie Alley, US actress (1951-); Howard Stern, US radio/TV personality (1954-); Melanie Chisholm (Mel C), English pop singer (1974-); Andrew Chan, Australian drug smuggler of the Bali Nine (1984-2015); Georgia May Jagger, English model (1992-); Zayn Malik, English pop singer (1993-).
Thought for Today:
Being young is a fault which improves daily - Swedish proverb.