HIGHLIGHTS IN HISTORY ON THIS DATE
1204 - In the Fourth Crusade, Constantinople is captured by the Crusaders.
1606 - England adopts as its flag the original version of the Union Jack, which combines the crosses of St George of England and St Andrew of Scotland.
1709 - The British magazine The Tatler, founded by Sir Richard Steele, is first published.
1861 - US Civil War starts as Confederates fire on Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina.
1877 - Britain annexes the Boer South African Republic as the Transvaal.
1905 - Aboriginal bushranger Mary Ann Baker, who partnered Captain Thunderbolt in love and crime in northern NSW, dies aged 70.
1914 - George Bernard Shaw's play Pygmalion opens in London.
1934 - The highest velocity natural wind ever recorded occurs at Mount Washington, New Hampshire, with gusts reaching 371.6 kph.
1954 - Bill Haley and his Comets record breakthrough rock and roll song Rock Around the Clock.
1955 - Salk vaccine against polio is declared safe and effective.
1961 - Soviet Union puts the first man in space; cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin makes safe landing after one orbit of Earth.
1964 - The Rev Ted Noffs opens Wayside Chapel in Kings Cross, Sydney.
1966 - US bombers carry out their first strikes against North Vietnam.
1979 - Release of Mad Max, a low-budget Australian film directed by George Miller and starring Mel Gibson.
1981 - The first re-usable space shuttle, Columbia, blasts off from Cape Canaveral on its first test flight.
1992 - Euro Disneyland opens in France amid controversy as French intellectuals bemoan the invasion of US pop culture.
1996 - Kuala Lumpur's Petronas Towers are declared the world's tallest buildings by a committee of experts.
1998 - Sinn Fein leader Gerry Adams appeals to IRA supporters to accept Northern Ireland's compromise peace accord.
2000 - An overloaded wooden Philippine ferry headed for Malaysia capsizes off the southern Philippines, killing at least 133 people.
2003 - Philippine troops free the last four Indonesian hostages held on the southern island of Jolo since June 2002 by Abu Sayyaf, a Muslim separatist group.
2010 - The Vatican makes clear for the first time that bishops and other church officials should report clerical sex abuse to police if required by law.
2011 - Japan ranks its nuclear crisis at the highest possible severity on an international scale - the same level as the 1986 Chernobyl disaster.
2015 - A federal " no jab, no pay" plan is announced under which parents who refuse to have their children vaccinated will not receive childcare and welfare benefits.
2017 - A funeral is held in northern NSW for Stephanie King, who drowned while trying to save her two young children when their car slid off a road into a flood-swollen river.
Christopher Smart, English poet (1722-1771); Helen Forrest, US jazz singer (1917-1999); John Landy, Australian runner and former Governor of Victoria (1930-); Alan Ayckbourn, English playwright (1939-); Herbie Hancock, US jazz musician (1940-); David Cassidy, US actor-singer (1950-2017); Mike Munro, Australian journalist (1953-); Magda Szubanski, Australian comedian (1961-); Belinda Emmett, Australian actor (1974-2006); Claire Danes, US actress (1979-); Jelena Dokic, Serbian/Australian tennis player (1983-); Saoirse Ronan, Irish actress (1994-).
THOUGHT FOR TODAY
We don't see things as they are, we see them as we are. - Anais Nin, French-American author.