Highlights in history on this date:
680 - Hussein, one of Shi'ite Islam's key saints, is killed at the Battle of Karbala in modern-day Iraq.
1733 - France declares war on Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI.
1774 - Captain James Cook lands on Norfolk Island, then uninhabited.
1842 - Britain proclaims victory as second Afghan War ends.
1859 - Civil war breaks out in Argentina.
1899 - One of the United States' leading black inventors, IR Johnson, receives a patent for the bicycle frame.
1913 - Atlantic and Pacific oceans are united when the Gamboa Dam in the Panama Canal is blown up.
1918 - In World War I, the Leinster, an Irish mail boat, is sunk by a German submarine on its way to Holyhead, killing at least 480 people.
1935 - Porgy and Bess, an opera by composer George Gershwin, has its New York premiere.
1938 - Nazi Germany completes occupation of Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland.
1943 - Generalissimo Chiang Kai-Shek takes oath of office as President of China.
1954 - Liberation of Hanoi, Vietnam, from French troops.
1957 - The television series Zorro premieres in the United States, starring Guy Williams as the dashing hero.
1961 - The whole population of the South Atlantic island Tristan da Cunha is evacuated to Britain after a volcano erupts.
1964 - The Tokyo Olympic Games, the first held in Asia, begin.
1970 - Fiji, a British colony since 1874, becomes an independent member of the Commonwealth.
1973 - US Vice-President Spiro Agnew resigns after his conviction for income tax evasion.
1975 - Actors Richard Burton and Elizabeth Taylor marry for the second time at a remote location in Botswana.
1977 - Two Soviet cosmonauts, encountering trouble in docking with their space station, are ordered to return to Earth.
1980 - An earthquake measuring 7.3 on the Richter scale hits Algeria, killing 12,590 people.
1982 - The US imposes sanctions against Poland after the Polish government bans the Solidarity trade union.
1985 - Death of Vladivostok-born actor Yul Brynner in New York at age 65; Death of US actor-director Orson Welles in Los Angeles at age 70.
1989 - South African President FW De Klerk announces that eight prominent political prisoners, including African National Congress official Walter Sisulu, will be unconditionally freed, but that Nelson Mandela will remain imprisoned.
1993 - The Seohae, a ferry overloaded with 362 people, capsizes off Puan county, South Korea. Only 70 people survive.
1997 - The International Campaign to Ban Land Mines and its co-ordinator, Jody Williams, are named winners of the Nobel Peace Prize.
1998 - Rebels use a missile to shoot down a jetliner carrying 40 civilians in eastern Congo, claiming it was ferrying government troops to the besieged town Kindu.
2000 - Sirimavo Bandaranaike, who 40 years earlier became the world's first female prime minister, dies of a heart attack aged 84 in Colombo, Sri Lanka.
2004 - Superman actor Christopher Reeve, who became a committed campaigner for spinal cord research after being paralysed in a riding accident in 1995, dies aged 52.
2006 - Indian novelist Kiran Desai wins the Booker prize, becoming the youngest woman ever to capture one of the world's most prestigious literary awards.
2008 - American TV network NBC screen the US version of Kath and Kim, picking up seven million viewers despite critics panning the program. The Seven Network screens the US show on October 12 with more than 1.2 million viewers tuning in.
2010 - Churches, banquet halls and other wedding venues across the world are extra busy as couples seeking a perfect 10 rushed to tie the knot on a once-in-a-century milestone: October 10, 2010.
2012 - Schools shut their doors and Pakistanis across the country hold vigils for 14-year-old Malala Yousafzai, the schoolgirl shot by a Taliban gunman after daring to advocate education for girls.
2014 - Pakistan's Malala Yousafzai becomes the youngest winner of the Nobel Peace Prize.
2016 - Roger Herft steps down as Anglican Archbishop of Perth, just over a month after admitting to the royal commission into child sexual abuse to badly letting down victims.
2017 - More than 11,000 Rohingya flee Myanmar and cross into Bangladesh in just one day following a violent government crackdown, with the UN on full alert.
Henry Cavendish, English scientist (1731-1810); Giuseppe Verdi, Italian composer (1813-1901); Paul Kruger, South African statesman and soldier (1825-1904); Fridtjof Nansen, Norwegian explorer (1861-1930); Helen Hayes, US actress (1900-1993); Alberto Giacometti, Swiss artist (1901-1966); Thelonious Monk, US jazz musician (1917-1982); Harold Pinter, British playwright (1930-2008); Bruce Devlin, Australian golfer (1937-); Midge Ure, British singer-musician (1953-); David Lee Roth, US singer (1955-); Martin Kemp, British musician-actor (1961-); Gabriella Cilmi, Australian singer (1991-).
Thought For Today:
At every single moment of one's life, one is what one is going to be no less than what one has been - Oscar Wilde, Irish poet and dramatist (1856-1900)